Franklin Beauty School Collection
Scope and Contents
The Franklin Beauty School Collection records houses documents realted to the operation of the beauty school from 1938 to 1976. These documents include student registration forms, the Franklin Beauty School's publications and flyers, correspondence relating to students, payroll records, taxes and business records. There are also records relating to agencies and organizations auxiliary to The Franklin Beauty School, but were important to the school's practice. Documents were retained from state agencies governing labor laws, including the Texas State Board and the Texas State Employment Commission. J.H. Jemison's personal business records are included in this collection as well.
- 1938 - 1976
Conditions Governing Access
This collection is open for research.
Conditions Governing Use
Permission to publish or reproduce materials from the Franklin Beauty School Collection must be obtained from African American Library at the Gregory School or the appropriate copyright holder.
Biographical / Historical
The Franklin School of Beauty was formally established by Nobia Franklin in 1917 after several years of creating and selling beauty products from her home in San Antonio, Texas. Following a few initial moves that included Houston, the school was eventually based in Chicago. When Nobia died, her property and business were left to her daughter Abbie. When she came of age Abbie married J. H. Jemison who then managed the Franklin Beauty School. The young couple soon made the decision to close the Chicago location and re-open the salon and school permanently in Houston in 1935. Positive decisions were made that greatly facilitated the expansion of the business. It soon became apparent that J. H. possessed the marketing and leadership acumen that would make the Franklin Beauty School a great success in Houston. In partnership with Abbie, Jemison spent 35 years in business making a vast contribution to raising the civil status of young beauticians of color. J. H. Jemison also dedicated himself to leadership in the community. His involvement was pivotal in such endeavors as desegregating Houston's city golf courses, establishing a Girl Scout camp so young Black girls could participate in camping activities, and serving as President of the Youth Council of the N.A.A.C.P.
In the segregated southern United States cosmetology offered women of color employment options substantially more desirable than domestic work, field labor, or assemblage in a factory. Not only did the Black beauty schools train their students in cosmetology, but bestowed them with an understanding of culture, gender norms, socio-political issues, and marketing strategies.
In the late nineteenth century African-American women began making and selling hair dress and tonics. Jim Crow laws created barriers for minorities in obtaining small business loans for beauty schools and salons. As they grew, black entrepreneurs were forced to be resourceful in saving their own money and collaborating with others having like goals. Racial segregation ensured a viable market in this area for the fledgling Black entrepreneurs. Until the end of World War II, Black-owned companies dominated the beauty industry within the Black community.
Post-World War II African-American populations were growing rapidly nationwide; particularly in the South. In 1935 when the Jemisons came to Houston, the city was inhabited by 64,000 African Americans. Texas law began requiring beauty operators to complete 1,000 hours of training, and the thriving African-American population, and leadership within the Black community provided a fruitful environment for new businesses in ethnic beauty culture.
3.1 Linear Feet (6)
Language of Materials
The records are arranged into five series. Student Registratin records are arranged aphabetically by last name then chronologically by year. Financial Records are arranged chronologicall by year. the remainig sereis are arranged by material type.
Series I Student Registration Forms
Series II Financial Records
Series II Newspapers and Newsclippings
Series IV Photographs
Series V Memberships
Series VII Artifacts
Immediate Source of Acquisition
Donated by the Houston Metropolitan Research Center, December 2009.
Processed by: Vince Lee, February 2010
- African American beauty operators -- United States Subject Source: Lcnaf
- African American business enterprises Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- Businessmen -- Texas -- Houston Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
- RG 0002 Franklin Beauty School Collection
- An Inventory of Records at the African American Library at the Gregory School, Houston Public Library
- Vince Lee
- February 2010
- Description rules
- Describing Archives: A Content Standard
- Language of description
- Script of description
- Code for undetermined script
Part of the African American History Research Center Repository